By Sebastian Fedden
Mian is an endangered non-Austronesian ('Papuan') language of the okay family members spoken within the Highlands fringe in western Papua New Guinea via nearly 1,400 audio system. This grammar is the 1st accomplished description of the language with special research of tone, gender and clause chaining. The research relies on fundamental box info recorded via the writer. The publication includes a choice of totally glossed and translated texts and a observe list.
Winner of the 2013 ALT Gabelentz Award
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Extra info for A Grammar of Mian
Other embedded structures found in the language are embedded questions and quotatives. Unmarked constituent orders in medial and final clauses and independent sentences are SV and AOV. Due to the head-marking characteristics of the language, constituent order is relatively flexible with the mandatory restriction that the verb be clause-final. The verb can only be followed by =ba, signalling negative polarity, and/or an illocutionary clitic particle, which marks independent sentences or whole clause chains as declarative, exclamative, interrogative, quotative, or hortative.
The language and its speakers seeds are mixed with water. The men preparing the food take handfuls out of the bowls and squeeze a signal-red (-orange, -yellow) sauce-like substance onto the dough. The seeds remain in the hands and are discarded. When the dough is covered completely, people gather around the pizza and start eating using stick-like implements (atit) in order to cut the dough and transport the colourful food safely to their mouths. Traditionally, the pandanus pizza was only prepared and eaten by initiated men, even today the preparation lies almost exclusively in male hands.
Some older speakers collapse the sequence /an/ into a nasalized [ã] when followed by /s/, as in /Hans/ [ã s] ‘song’. In word-initial low-tone /Ca/ syllables, /a/ is reduced to . (28) afál taman /LHafal/ /Ltaman/ [afál] [tman] ‘mucus’ ‘valley’ /a/ is a low, central, pharyngealized vowel, which can form the nucleus of any syllable. It is generally longer than the non-pharyngealized /a/ and pronounced [a]. In the orthography, it is written
A Grammar of Mian by Sebastian Fedden